New empires emerged and fused Hellenism with their own culture to create some of the most powerful civilizations of the ancient world. After Alexander's conquests the region of Bithynia came under the rule of the native king Bas, who defeated Calas, a general of Alexander the Great, and maintained the independence of Bithynia. The spread of Greek culture under the Successors seems mostly to have occurred with the spreading of Greeks themselves, rather than as an active policy. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus, while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander's child by Roxana. Most of the native population was not Hellenized, had little access to Greek culture and often found themselves discriminated against by their Hellenic overlords. Alexander appointed an Orontid named Mithranes to govern Armenia. This varied greatly by location. Its capital was the city of Petra, an important trading city on the incense route. Hellenistic-era warships grew from the trireme to include more banks of oars and larger numbers of rowers and soldiers as in the Quadrireme and Quinquereme. Mithridates also depicted himself with the anastole hairstyle of Alexander and used the symbolism of Herakles, from whom the Macedonian kings claimed descent. The states of the Hellenistic period were deeply fixated with the past and its seemingly lost glories. Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. The "Brihat-Samhita" of the mathematician Varahamihira says: "The Greeks, though impure, must be honored since they were trained in sciences and therein, excelled others...".[91]. Antiochus III ("the Great") conducted several vigorous campaigns to retake all the lost provinces of the empire since the death of Seleucus I. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. In the early 2nd century BC, the Galatians became allies of Antiochus the Great, the last Seleucid king trying to regain suzerainty over Asia Minor. What was Alexander favorite name for a city? Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 53. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Greek dedications, statues, architecture, and inscriptions have all been found. As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after Hannibal had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) during the Second Punic War. Title: Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic Culture 1 Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic Culture. He was elected Hegemon of the league, and a campaign against the Achaemenid Empire of Persia was planned. Antigonus remained in charge of Asia Minor, Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace and Seleucus I controlled Babylon. Rome eventually turned on Rhodes and annexed the island as a Roman province. Other city states formed federated states in self-defense, such as the Aetolian League (est. Alexander spread Greek culture throughout the Persian Empire, including parts of Asia and Africa. He promoted short poetic forms such as the epigram, epyllion and the iambic and attacked epic as base and common ("big book, big evil" was his doctrine). How did Hellenistic Culture shape the rest of the Mediterranean world? [109] Antioch was founded as a metropolis and center of Greek learning which retained its status into the era of Christianity. The Ptolemaic Tessarakonteres was the largest ship constructed in Antiquity. Prag & Quinn (editors). This was the first time a European force had invaded the region. What does contingent mean in real estate? Title: Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic Culture 1 Alexander the Great and the spread of Hellenistic Culture. With the support of roy… Hellenism r Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 92. Hellenistic culture was created when Alexander moved place to place concurring and befriending the people of their country. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. Hellenistic Impact on Indian Culture. Despite this, it is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration,[4] compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. The Nabateans resisted the attacks of Antigonus and were allies of the Hasmoneans in their struggle against the Seleucids, but later fought against Herod the Great. The term Hellenistic also implies that the Greek populations were of majority in the areas in which they settled, but in many cases, the Greek settlers were actually the minority among the native populations. The use of heavily armored cataphracts and also horse archers was adopted by the Seleucids, Greco-Bactrians, Armenians and Pontus. The Hellenistic states of Asia and Egypt were run by an occupying imperial elite of Greco-Macedonian administrators and governors propped up by a standing army of mercenaries and a small core of Greco-Macedonian settlers. Carte de la Macédoine et du monde égéen vers 200 av. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe, or Berenice. and the rise of Augustus in Rome in 31 B.C.E. madelinecooksey. Though the Nabateans originally worshipped their traditional gods in symbolic form such as stone blocks or pillars, during the Hellenistic period they began to identify their gods with Greek gods and depict them in figurative forms influenced by Greek sculpture. In 4th-century BC Sicily the leading Greek city and hegemon was Syracuse. [45] A staunch ally of Rome, Massalia retained its independence until it sided with Pompey in 49 BC and was then taken by Caesar's forces. a) Persian officials spread Hellenistic culture after Persia conquered Alexander’s empire. Created by. The level of Hellenistic achievement in astronomy and engineering is impressively shown by the Antikythera mechanism (150–100 BC). His son Demetrius II soon died in 229 BC, leaving a child (Philip V) as king, with the general Antigonus Doson as regent. Under the Antigonids, Macedonia was often short on funds, the Pangaeum mines were no longer as productive as under Philip II, the wealth from Alexander's campaigns had been used up and the countryside pillaged by the Gallic invasion. [82] Antiochus IV Epiphanes sacked Jerusalem and looted the Temple in 169 BC after disturbances in Judea during his abortive invasion of Egypt. His son and successor, Nicomedes I, founded Nicomedia, which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign (c. 278 – c. 255 BC), as well as those of his successors, the kingdom of Bithynia held a considerable place among the minor monarchies of Anatolia. They also initiated an active exportation of Greek culture. In Arabia, Bahrain, which was referred to by the Greeks as Tylos, the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus came to discover it serving under Alexander the Great. Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria[69] with 200,000 volumes according to Plutarch. Alexander of Macedon was the son of Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) who recognized that his neighbors considered Macedon a backward region of little importance and decided to change that view dramatically. The term Hellenistic is a modern invention; the Hellenistic World not only included a huge area covering the whole of the Aegean, rather than the Classical Greece focused on the Poleis of Athens and Sparta, but also a huge time range. Hellenism, have been widely used in various contexts; a notable such use is in Culture and Anarchy by Matthew Arnold, where Hellenism is used in contrast with Hebraism.[14]. Many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him in the Mithridatic wars. Another poet, Apollonius of Rhodes, attempted to revive the epic for the Hellenistic world with his Argonautica. What made Alexander so great? Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC) after yet another rebellion under Andriscus. [44] Traders from Massalia ventured inland deep into France on the Rivers Durance and Rhône, and established overland trade routes deep into Gaul, and to Switzerland and Burgundy. [22] He was defeated in 288 BC when Lysimachus of Thrace and Pyrrhus of Epirus invaded Macedon on two fronts, and quickly carved up the kingdom for themselves. [125] He also wrote a massive catalog of the holdings of the library of Alexandria, the famous Pinakes. Roman entanglement in the Balkans began when Illyrian piratical raids on Roman merchants led to invasions of Illyria (the First and, Second Illyrian Wars). The library of Alexandria included a zoo for research and Hellenistic zoologists include Archelaos, Leonidas of Byzantion, Apollodoros of Alexandria and Bion of Soloi. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. [37] The Diadochi also used Thracian mercenaries in their armies and they were also used as colonists. Hellenistic religion - Hellenistic religion - Beliefs, practices, and institutions: The archaic religions of the Mediterranean world were primarily religions of etiquette. [20] Seleucus was forced to flee to Egypt and Antigonus was soon at war with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander. [54] External possessions such as Cyprus and Cyrene were run by strategoi, military commanders appointed by the crown. Philip II was a strong and expansionist king and he took every opportunity to expand Macedonian territory. From there, he created a new empire which expanded to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. Hellenistic science differed from Greek science in at least two ways: first, it benefited from the cross-fertilization of Greek ideas with those that had developed in the larger Hellenistic world; secondly, to some extent, it was supported by royal patrons in the kingdoms founded by Alexander's successors. Hinüber (2000), pp. The Illyrians: history and culture, History and Culture Series, The Illyrians: History and Culture, Aleksandar Stipčević, The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 233&236, "The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). In 191 BC, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio routed him at Thermopylae and obliged him to withdraw to Asia. [77] Aretas captured Damascus and built the Petra pool complex and gardens in the Hellenistic style. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek rule. This blending became known as Hellenisticculture. As Alexander the Great conquered many lands in asia and Egypt he tried to bring Greek culture to the conquered areas by starting new cities that were Greek like. [141] Demetrius Poliorcetes was notorious for the large siege engines employed in his campaigns, especially during the 12-month siege of Rhodes when he had Epimachos of Athens build a massive 160 ton siege tower named Helepolis, filled with artillery. But they poured forth from the hands of the copyists in a profusion that is almost incredible when we consider that the art of printing by movable type was unknown. It is not known whether Bahrain was part of the Seleucid Empire, although the archaeological site at Qalat Al Bahrain has been proposed as a Seleucid base in the Persian Gulf. After holding out for one year under siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes (305–304 BC), the Rhodians built the Colossus of Rhodes to commemorate their victory. Michael Rostovtzeff, who fled the Russian Revolution, concentrated predominantly on the rise of the capitalist bourgeoisie in areas of Greek rule. 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